Husband Harold Nicolson

Queer Places:
Les Ruches, 10 Avenue des Carrosses, 77210 Avon, France
White Lodge, 40 The Cliff, Brighton BN2 5RE, Regno Unito
40 Sussex Square, Brighton BN2, Regno Unito
2 Rue Laffitte, 75009 Paris, Francia
4 Kings Bench Walk, Temple, London EC4Y 7DL, Regno Unito
182 Ebury St, Belgravia, London SW1W, Regno Unito
10 Neville St, Kensington, London SW7 3AR, Regno Unito
Long Barn, Long Barn Rd, Sevenoaks Weald, Sevenoaks TN14, Regno Unito
Knole House, Sevenoaks TN15 0RP, Regno Unito
Sissinghurst Castle Garden, Biddenden Rd, Cranbrook TN17 2AB, Regno Unito
St Michael and All Angels, Hartfield TN7 4BD, Regno Unito

Victoria Mary Sackville-West, Lady Nicolson, CH (9 March 1892 – 2 June 1962), usually known as Vita Sackville-West, was an English poet, novelist, and garden designer.

She was a successful novelist, poet, and journalist, as well as a prolific letter writer and diarist. She published more than a dozen collections of poetry during her lifetime and 13 novels. She was twice awarded the Hawthornden Prize for Imaginative Literature: in 1927 for her pastoral epic, The Land, and in 1933 for her Collected Poems. She was the inspiration for the androgynous protagonist of Orlando: A Biography, by her famous friend and lover, Virginia Woolf.

She had a longstanding column in The Observer (1946-1961) and is remembered for the celebrated garden at Sissinghurst created with her husband, Sir Harold Nicolson.

Knole, the home of Vita's aristocratic ancestors in Kent, was given to Thomas Sackville by Queen Elizabeth I in the sixteenth century. [1] Vita was born there, the only child of cousins Victoria Sackville-West and Lionel Edward Sackville-West, 3rd Baron Sackville.[2] Vita's mother, raised in a Parisian convent, was the illegitimate daughter of Lionel Sackville-West, 2nd Baron Sackville and a Spanish dancer, Josefa de Oliva (née Durán y Ortega), known as Pepita. Pepita's mother was an acrobat who had married a barber. [3]

Although the marriage of Vita's parents was initially happy, shortly after the child's birth, the couple drifted and Lionel took an opera singer for a mistress and she came to live with them at Knole. [4]

Christened Victoria Mary Sackville-West, the girl was known as "Vita" throughout her life to distinguish her from her mother, also called Victoria.[5][6]The usual English aristocratic inheritance customs were followed by the Sackville-West family, preventing Vita from inheriting Knole on the death of her father, a source of life-long bitterness to Vita.[7][a] The house followed the title, and was bequeathed instead by her father to his nephew Charles, who became the 4th Baron.

Vita was initially home-schooled by governesses and later attended Helen Wolff's school for girls, an exclusive day school in Mayfair, where she met first loves Violet Keppel and Rosamund Grosvenor. She didn't befriend local children and found it hard to make friends at school. Her biographers characterise her childhood as one filled by loneliness and isolation. She wrote prolifically at Knole, penning eight full-length (unpublished) novels between 1906-1910, ballads, and many plays, some in French. Her lack of formal education led to later shyness with her peers, such as those in the Bloomsbury Group. She felt herself to be sluggish of mind and she was never at the intellectual heart of her social group.[10][11] [12]

Vita's apparently Roma lineage introduced a passion for 'gypsy' ways, a culture she perceived to be hot-blooded, heart-led, dark and romantic. It informed the stormy nature of many of Vita's later love affairs and was a strong theme in her writing. She visited Roma camps and felt herself to be at one with them. [13]

Vita's mother had a wide array of famous lovers, including financier J P Morgan and Sir John Murray Scott (from 1897-1912, until his death). Scott, secretary to the couple who inherited and developed the Wallace Collection, was a devoted companion and Lady Sackville and he were rarely apart during their years together. During her childhood, Vita spent a great deal of time in Scott's apartments in Paris, perfecting her already fluent French. [14]

Vita debuted in 1910, shortly after the death of King Edward VII. She was wooed by Orazio Pucci, son of a distinguished Florentine family, by Lord Granby and Lord Lascelles, among others. In 1914 she had a passionate affair with historian Geoffrey Scott. Scott's marriage collapsed shortly thereafter, as was often the fallout with Vita's affairs, all with women after this point.[15][16]

Vita fell in love with Rosamund Grosvenor (1888 – 1944), who was four years her senior. [b] In her journal Vita wrote "Oh, I dare say I realized vaguely that I had no business to sleep with Rosamund, and I should certainly never have allowed anyone to find it out," but she saw no real conflict.[17]:29–30 Lady Sackville, Vita's mother, invited Rosamund to visit the family at their villa in Monte Carlo (1910). Rosamund also stayed with Vita at Knole House, at Murray Scott's pied a terre on the Rue Laffitte in Paris, and at Sluie, Scott's shooting lodge in the Scottish Highlands, near Banchory. Their secret relationship ended in 1913 when Vita married. [18][19]

Vita was more deeply involved with Violet Keppel, daughter of the Hon. George Keppel and his wife, Alice Keppel. The sexual relationship began when they were both in their teens and strongly influenced them for years. Both later married and became writers. [20]:148

Sackville-West was courted for 18 months by young diplomat Harold Nicolson, whom she found to be a secretive character. She writes that the wooing was entirely chaste and throughout they did not so much as kiss. [21]:68 In 1913, at age 21, Vita married him in the private chapel at Knole. [c] Vita's parents were opposed to the marriage on the grounds that "penniless" Nicolson had an annual income of only £250. He was the third secretary at the British Embassy in Constantinople and his father had been made a peer only under Queen Victoria. Another of Sackville-West's suitors, Lord Granby, had an annual income of £100,000, owned vast acres of land and was heir to an old title, the Duchy of Rutland.[21]:68

The couple had an open marriage. Both Sackville-West and her husband had same-sex relationships before and during their marriage, as did some of the Bloomsbury Group of writers and artists, with whom they had connections.[22][23]:127 Sackville-West saw herself as psychologically divided into two: one side of her personality was more feminine, soft, submissive and attracted to men while the other side was more masculine, hard, aggressive and attracted to women.[23]

Following the pattern of his father's career, Harold Nicholson was at various times a diplomat, journalist, broadcaster, Member of Parliament, and author of biographies and novels. After the wedding the couple lived in Cihangir, a suburb of Constantinople (now Istanbul), the capital of the Ottoman Empire. Sackville-West loved Constantinople, but the duties of a diplomat's wife did not appeal to her. It was only during this time that she attempted to don, with good grace, the part of a "correct and adoring wife of the brilliant young diplomat", as she sarcastically wrote.[21]:97 [21]:95 When she became pregnant, in the summer of 1914, the couple returned to England to ensure that she could give birth in a British hospital.

The family lived at 182 Ebury Street, Belgravia [24] and bought Long Barn in Kent as a country house (1915 - 1930). They employed the architect Edwin Lutyens to make improvements to the house. The British declaration of war on the Ottoman Empire in November 1914, following Ottoman naval attacks on Russia, precluded any return to Constantinople. [21]:131

The couple had two children: Nigel (1917–2004), who became a well-known editor, politician, and writer, and Benedict Nicolson (1914–1978), an art historian. Another son was stillborn in 1915. His biographer writes:

Harold had a series of relationships with men who were his intellectual equals, but the physical element in them was very secondary. He was never a passionate lover. To him sex was as incidental, and about as pleasurable, as a quick visit to a picture-gallery between trains. [25]

Sackville-West continued to receive devoted letters from her lover Violet Keppel. She was deeply upset to read of Keppel's engagement.[21]:131 Her response was to travel to Paris to see Keppel and persuade her to honour their commitment. Keppel, depressed and suicidal, did eventually marry her fiancée Major Trefusis, under pressure from her mother, though Keppel made it clear that she did not love her husband.[26]:62 Sackville-West called the marriage her own greatest failure.[26]:65

Sackville-West and Keppel disappeared together several times from 1918 on, mostly to France. One day in 1918 Vita writes that she experienced a radical 'liberation', where her male aspect was unexpectedly freed.[27] She writes: "I went into wild spirits; I ran, I shouted, I jumped, I climbed, I vaulted over gates, I felt like a schoolboy let out on a holiday... that wild irresponsible day".[28]

The mothers of both women joined forces to sabotage the relationship and force their daughters back to their husbands.[26] But they were unsuccessful. Vita often dressed as a man, styled as Keppel's husband. The two women made a bond to remain faithful to one another, pledging that neither would engage in sexual relations with their husband. [d]

Keppel continued to pursue her lover to great lengths, until Sackville-West's affairs with other women finally took their toll. In November 1919, while staying at Monte Carlo, Sackville-West wrote that she felt very low, entertaining thoughts of suicide, believing that Nicolson would be better off without her.[23] In 1920 the lovers ran off again to France together and their husbands chased after them in a small two-seater aeroplane. [29] Sackville-West heard allegations that Keppel and her husband Trefusis had been involved sexually, and she broke off the relationship as the lesbian oath of fidelity had been broken. [23] Despite the rift, the two women stayed devoted to one another.

Her relationship with the prominent writer Virginia Woolf commenced in 1925 and ended in 1935, reaching its height between 1925-28.[32]:195-214 The American scholar Louise DeSalvo wrote that the ten years between 1925-35 were the artistic peak of both women's careers as the two had a positive influence on one another: "neither had ever written so much so well, and neither would ever again reach this peak of accomplishment".[32]:195-214 [e]

In December 1922 Sackville-West first met Virginia Woolf at a dinner party in London.[32]:197 Though Sackville-West came from an aristocratic family that was far richer than Woolf's middle class background, the women bonded over their confined childhoods and emotionally absent parents.[32]:198 Woolf knew about Sackville-West's relationship with Keppel and was impressed by the free spirit at play.[33] [f] [g]

Sackville-West greatly admired Woolf's writings, considering her to be the better author, telling Woolf in one letter: "I contrast my illiterate writing with your scholarly one, and I am ashamed".[32]:202 Though Woolf envied Sackville-West's ability to write quickly, she was inclined to believe that the volumes were created too much in haste: "Vita's prose is too fluent".[32]:202 [h]

The two grew close and Woolf disclosed how, as a child, she had been abused by her step-brother. [i] It was largely due to Sackville-West's support that Woolf began to heal the damage, allowing her for the first time to have a satisfying erotic relationship. [j] Woolf purchased a mirror during a trip to France with her lover, saying she felt she could look in a mirror for the first time in her life. Sackville-West counselled her to have greater confidence in her many strengths and to cast off the self-image of the sickly semi-recluse. She persuaded Woolf that her nervous ailments had been misdiagnosed, and that she should focus on her own varied intellectual projects; that she must learn to rest. [k] [32]:199[32]:200 [32]:201

To help the Woolfes, Sackville-West chose their Hogarth Press to be her publisher. Seducers in Ecuador, the first Sackville-West novel to be published by Hogarth, did not sell well, selling only 1500 copies in its first year, but the next, The Edwardians, was a huge success and sold 30000 copies in its first six months. The boost helped Hogarth financially, though Woolf did not always value the books' romantic themes. The increased security of the Press's fortunes allowed Woolf to write more experimental novels such as The Waves[32]:201 Though Woolf is generally considered today to be the better writer, in the 1920s Sackville-West was viewed by the critics as the more accomplished author and her books outsold Woolf's by a large margin.[26]:66-67 [l]

Sackville-West loved to travel, frequently going to France, Spain and to visit Nicolson in Persia, and these trips were emotionally draining for Woolf, who missed Sackville-West intensely. Woolf's novel To the Lighthouse with its theme of longing for someone who is not there was inspired partly by the frequent absences of Sackville-West. Woolf was inspired by Sackville-West to write one of her most famous novels, Orlando, featuring a protagonist who changes sex over the centuries. This work was described by Sackville-West's son Nigel Nicolson as "the longest and most charming love-letter in literature." [32]:204

There were, however, tensions in the relationship. Woolf was often bothered by what she viewed as Sackville-West's promiscuity, charging that the great need for sex led her to take up with anyone who struck her fancy.[32]:213 In A Room Of One's Own (1929), Woolf attacks patriarchal inheritance laws, which was meant to be an implicit criticism of Sackville-West, who never questioned the leading social and political position of the aristocracy to which she belonged. She felt that Sackville-West was unable to critique the system she was both a part of and, to a certain extent, a victim of.[32]:209-210 In the 1930s they clashed over Nicolson's "unfortunate" involvement with Oswald Mosley and the New Party (later renamed the British Union of Fascists) [m] and they were at odds over the looming war. Sackville-West supported rearmament while Woolf remained loyal to her pacifism, leading to an end of their relationship in 1935.[32]:214

One of Vita's male suitors, Henry Lascelles, would later marry the Princess Royal and become the 6th Earl of Harewood.[34]

In 1927 Sackville-West had an affair with Mary Garman, a member of the Bloomsbury Group and between 1929 and 1931 with Hilda Matheson, head of the BBC Talks Department.[35] In 1931, Sackville-West was in a ménage à trois with journalist Evelyn Irons and Irons's lover, Olive Rinder. Irons had interviewed Vita after her novel The Edwardians had become a best-seller.[36][37]

Vita Sackville-West died at Sissinghurst in June 1962, aged 70, from abdominal cancer.[57] She was cremated and ashes buried in the family crypt within the church at Withyham, eastern Sussex.[58]

Sissinghurst Castle Garden, Kent

Sissinghurst Castle is owned by the National Trust. Her son Nigel Nicolson lived there after her death, and following his death in 2004 his own son Adam Nicolson, Baron Carnock, came to live there with his family. With his wife, the horticulturalist Sarah Raven, they committed to restore the mixed working farm and growing food on the property for residents and visitors, a function that had withered under the aegis of the Trust.[59]

The film Vita & Virginia began filming in September 2017. Its current cast include Elizabeth Debicki and Isabella Rossellini. It is directed by Chanya Button and based on a play by Eileen Atkins, created from the love letters between Sackville-West and Woolf. The play was first performed in London in October 1993 and off Broadway in November 1994.[60]


  1. Sackville-West (2015) p1
  2. Cannadine, David (1994). Aspects of Aristocracy: Grandeur and Decline in Modern Britain. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. pp. 224–241. ISBN 0300059817. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  3. Sackville-West (2015) p2
  4. "More family history from Knole and Sissinghurst", The Spectator, Anne Chisholm, 16 April 2016
  5. Sackville-West (2015) pxiv
  6. Sackville-West (2015) p1
  7. Sackville-West (2015) pxiv
  8. Bell, Matthew. Inheritance: The Story of Knole and the Sackvilles, By Robert Sackville-West. 'The Independent', 16 May 2010;
  9. Hughes, Kathryn. "Love among the roses – Kathryn Hughes is touched by an unsentimental memoir", The Guardian', 27 September 2008.
  10. Sackville-West (2015) pXiii
  11. Sackville-West (2015) pp1-2
  12. Rose, Norman,Harold Nicolson Random House, 2014, pxxx
  13. Sackville-West (2015) p2
  14. Sackville-West (2015) p2
  15. Sackville-West (2015) p3
  16. Rose, Norman,Harold Nicolson Random House, 2014, ppxxxi - xxxxii
  17. Nicolson, Nigel; Sackville-West, Vita (1998) [1973]. Portrait of a Marriage. The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-58357-0.
  18. Sackville-West (2015) p3
  19. Rose, Norman,Harold Nicolson Random House, 2014, ppxxxi - xxxxii
  20. Blair, Kirstie (Summer 2004). "Gypsies and Lesbian Desire: Vita Sackville-West, Violet Trefusis, and Virginia Woolf". Twentieth Century Literature. 50 (2): 141–166. doi:10.2307/4149276. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  21. Dennison, Matthew (June 2015) [2014]. Behind the Mask: The Life of Vita Sackville-West. William Collins. ISBN 978-0007486984.
  22. Glendinning (Knopf, 1983) p436
  23. Johnston, Georgia (Autumn 2004). "Counterfeit Perversion: Vita Sackville-West's 'Portrait of a Marriage". Journal of Modern Literature. 28 (1): 124–137. doi:10.1353/jml.2005.0018. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  24. 182 Ebury St, Blue Plaque, English Heritage]
  25. Spartacus Educational Biography, quote from Portrait of a Marriage (1973)
  26. Smith, Victoria (Summer 2006). ""Ransacking the Language": Finding the Missing Goods in Virginia Woolf's Orlando". The Journal of Modern Literature. 29 (4): 57–75. doi:10.1353/jml.2006.0050. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  27. Sackville-West (2015) p4
  28. Sackville-West (2015) p4
  29. Sackville-West (2015) p4
  30. Milani, Abbas (June 2012). The Shah. London: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0230340381.
  31. Nicolson (2007)p20
  32. DeSalvo, Louise (Winter 1982). "Lighting the Cave: The Relationship between Vita Sackville-West and Virginia Woolf". Signs. 8 (2): 195–214. doi:10.1086/493959. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  33. Nicolson, Nigel Virginia Woolf, London: Penguin, 2000 page 87.
  34. Sackville-West and 6th Earl of Harewood,; accessed 17 October 2014.
  35. Charlotte Higgins "What can the origins of the BBC tell us about its future?", The Guardian, 15 April 2014
  36. Lewis, Paul (30 April 2000). "Obituaries". Evelyn Irons, War Reporter, Is Dead at 99. New York Times. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  37. Brenner, Felix (25 April 2000). "Obituary: Evelyn Irons". The Independent (London). The Independent.
  38. Garden Designer Vita Sackville-West, Great British Gardens
  39. Guardian "Vita Sackville-West's Notebook: teaching resource from the GNM archive July 2013 ".1 July 2013
  40. Lord (2000) pp. 67, 100
  41. Macmillian Biography
  42. Lord (2000) pp. 67, 100
  43. National Trust. Vita biography
  44. Poetry Foundation biography
  45. "Masterpiece Theatre Portrait of a Marriage Parts I-III", Variety, 17 July 1992
  46. Spartacus Educational Biography
  47. Sackville (2015) p5
  48. Sackville-West (2015) p13
  49. Pan Macmillan, Grand Canyon
  50. Catalogue of Columbia Records, Up to and including Supplement no. 252 (Columbia Graphophone Company, London September 1933), p. 375. This was on four 78rpm sides in the Columbia Records 'International Educational Society' Lecture series, Lecture 98 (Cat. no. D 40192/3).
  51. Spartacus Educational Biography
  52. Sackville-West (2015) pp13-14
  53. National Trust. Vita biography
  54. Spartacus Educational Biography
  55. Nagel, Rebecca (September 2008). "The Classical Tradition in Vita Sackville-West's Solitude". International Journal of the Classical Tradition. 15 (3): 407–427. doi:10.1007/s12138-009-0048-z. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  56. "The London Gazette Issue 38161 published on the 30 December 1947. Page 31 of 42". London Gazette. 30 December 1947.
  57. Who's who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity to World War II, Psychology Press, 2001, Volume 1 p390
  58. Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Locations 41300-41301). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition.
  59. "A happy return to manure". The Economist. 2 October 2008. Retrieved 2 October 2008.
  60. "Elizabeth Debicki, Isabella Rossellini Join Virginia Woolf Biopic Vita & Virginia" Variety 23 August 2017
  61. "Passenger to Teheran".
  62. "Grand Canyon".