Partner Nathalie Micas and
Anna Elizabeth Klumpke, buried together
Château de By, 11 Rue de la République, 77810 Thomery, Francia
Père Lachaise Cemetery, 16 Rue du Repos, 75020 Paris, Francia
Bonheur, born Marie-Rosalie Bonheur, (16 March 1822 – 25 May 1899) was a
French artist, an animalière (painter of animals) and sculptor, known for
her artistic realism. Her most well-known paintings are Ploughing in
first exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1848, and now at Musée d’Orsay in
Paris, and The Horse Fair (in French: Le marché aux chevaux),
which was exhibited at the Salon of 1853 (finished in 1855) and is now in
the Metropolitan Museum of Art, in New York City. Bonheur was widely
considered to be the most famous female painter during the nineteenth
Women were often only reluctantly educated as artists in Bonheur's day,
and by becoming such a successful artist she helped to open doors to women
artists that followed her.
Bonheur can be viewed as a "New Woman" of the 19th century; she was
known for wearing men's clothing,
but she attributed her choice of trousers to their practicality for
working with animals.
Bonheur died on 25 May 1899 at the age of 77, at Thomery (By), France.
She was buried together with Nathalie
Micas (1824 – June 24, 1889), her lifelong companion at Père Lachaise
Cemetery, Paris, and later
Anna Elizabeth Klumpke joined them. Many of her paintings, which had
not previously been shown publicly, were sold at auction in Paris in 1900.
One of her works, Monarchs of the Forest, sold at auction in 2008
for just over US$200,000.
With other realist 19th-century painters, Bonheur fell from fashion for
much of the 20th century, and in 1978 a critic described Ploughing in
the Nivernais as "entirely forgotten and rarely dragged out from
oblivion"; that year it was part of a series of paintings sent to China by
the French government for an exhibition titled "The French Landscape and
Since then her reputation has revived somewhat.
Metropolitan Museum of Art, NYC
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"Musée d'Orsay: Rosa Bonheur Labourage nivernais".
musee-orsay.fr. 25 March 2009.
Rosa Bonheur, The Horse Fair, Metropolitan Museum of Art
- Janson, H. W.,
Janson, Anthony F. History of Art. Harry N. Abrams, Inc.,
Publishers. 6th edition.
"Rosa Bonheur", Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Retrieved
23 May 2015.
Heather McPherson (2003).
"Bonheur, (Marie-)Rosa [Rosalie]".
Grove Art Online.
- Galton, Francis.
Hereditary Genius: An Inquiry into its Laws and Consequences.
Second edition. (London: MacMillan and Co, 1892), p. 247. Original
- Mackay, James,
The Animaliers, E.P. Dutton, Inc., New York, 1973
- Rosalia Shriver,
Rosa Bonheur: With a Checklist of Works in American Collections
(Philadelphia: Art Alliance Press, 1982) 2-12. (It must be said that,
as a reference source this book is itself riddled with inaccuracies
and mis-attributions but it accords with the consensus account on this
- Theodore Stanton,
Reminiscences of Rosa Bonheur (New York: D. Appleton and company,
1910), Theodore Stanton, Reminiscences of Rosa Bonheur (London: Andrew
Gaze, Delia, ed. (1997).
Dictionary of Women Artists. I. London and Chicago:
Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. p. 288-291.
Boime, Albert. "The Case of Rosa Bonheur: Why Should a Woman Want
to be More Like a Man?", Art History v. 4, December 1981, p.
Wild Spirit: The Work of Rosa Bonheur by Jen Longshaw
- Ashton, Dore and
Denise Browne Hare. Rosa Bonheur: A Life and a Legend, (New
York: Viking, 1981, 206pp.
The Horse Fair at Albright Knox Gallery, sketch for the
London version; the sketch for the New York version is in the Ludwig
Nissen Foundation, see: C. Steckner, in: Bilder aus der Neuen und
Alten Welt. Die Sammlung des Diamantenhändlers
Ludwig Nissen, 1993, p. 142 and
"Base Léonore, recensement des récipiendaires de la Légion d'honneur".
"Ernest Gambart". goodallartists.ca.
Stanton, Theodore (1910).
Reminiscences of Rosa Bonheur (with twenty-four full-page
illustrations and fifteen line drawings in the text. A.
Melrose. p. 64.
- Britta C. Dwyer,
“Bridging the gap of difference: Anna Klumpke's “union” with Rosa
Bonheur”, Out of context. (New York: Greenwood Press, 2004), p.
69-79.; Laurel Lampela, “Daring to be different: a look at three
lesbian artists”, Art Education v.54 no. 2 (March 2001), p. 45-51. and
Gretchen Van Slyke, “The sexual and textual politics of dress: Rosa
Bonheur and her cross-dressing permits”, Nineteenth-Century French
Studies v. 26 no. 3-4 (Spring/Summer 1998) p. 321-35.
- Janson: History
of Art, page 929
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bonheur,
Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University
"Rosa Bonheur (French, 1822-1899)". christies.com.
Muratova, Xenia (1978). "Current and
Forthcoming Exhibitions: Paris and China".
The Burlington Magazine. 120 (901): 257–60.
- Eugène de
Mirecourt, Les Contemporains: Rosa Bonheur (Paris: Gustave
Havard, 15 Rue Guénégaud, 1856) 20.
- Anna Klumpke,
Rosa Bonheur: Sa Vie, Son Oeuvre, (Paris: E. Flammarion, 1909),
Anna Klumpke, Rosa Bonheur: The Artist's (Auto)Biography,
trans. Gretchen Van Slyke (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press,
- Theodore Stanton,
Reminiscences of Rosa Bonheur, (New York: D. Appleton and
company, 1910), Theodore Stanton, Reminiscences of Rosa Bonheur,
(London: Andrew Melrose, 1910).
"Le site du village de Thomery 77810". free.fr.