Queer Places:
Karl-Schrader-Straße, 10781 Berlin, Germany
Agnes-Hacker-Straße, 12524 Berlin, Germany
University of Zurich, Rämistrasse 71, 8006 Zürich, Switzerland

Agnes Magdalena Hacker (* 1860 in Insterburg [1] : 58 , † September 6, 1909 in Schöneberg ) was a German doctor and advocate of the women's movement .

As the daughter of a judicial council and in the circle of many siblings Agnes Hacker grew up in East Prussian Insterburg. No news is known about their early life development. It can therefore only be assumed that, like a large number of first- and second-generation physicians, she initially trained as a teacher before finally deciding to study medicine in Switzerland , where this was already the case for women at the end of the 19th century was possible. At the University of Zurich , she first enrolled (1889/90) at the Faculty of Philosophy until 1890 she moved to the Medical Faculty, where she also passed the state examination in 1896 and received her doctorate in 1897. Her dissertation on a procedure for surgical removal of the uterus was made by Friedrich Schauta at the First University Gynecological Clinic in Vienna. [4] : 223 This was followed by a period of practical training, initially as an assistant in the women's department of the Zurich mental institution Burghölzli [5] . She may have decided to specialize in surgery during this time. Other stations led her to Ernst Wertheim in Vienna and Max Sänger to Leipzig . [1] : 58 In 1898 she moved to Berlin. In the remaining eleven years of her life her name appeared there in connection with the "various medical activities". Thus, in the same year she was led by Pauline Ploetz and Agnes Bluhm as a medical doctor of the "Commercial and Professional Aid Society for Female Employees" and in 1900 she was appointed as the first police doctor of Berlin, an office that she held until 1905. In addition, she was a senior physician at the Weissensee Bethabara and Beth Elim Foundation (now the Stephanus Foundation ) and a surgeon , most recently a family doctor at the Clinic of Female Doctors. The foundation supported prostituted prostitutes, to whom they offered first accommodation, financial help and the same job search. [4] : 223

It was only in 1899 that the Federal Council decided to admit women to the medical, dental and pharmaceutical state examinations, but excluding those who received their previous education abroad or passed their exams there. For Agnes Hacker and other female doctors of her time such as Franziska Tiburtius and Emilie Lehmus this not only continued to represent an unsecured legal position regarding their professional practice, but also constituted an existential burden. [4] : 222 In the aftermath of the Federal Council's decision of 1899, the following year The Health Insurance Fund of the Commercial and Commercial Aid Society for Female Employees prohibits not employing approved doctors in Germany. A further work of Bluhm, Hacker and Ploetz was only possible by acting as club doctors. A petition filed by hackers in front of the Federal Council with the large majority of other female doctors to also grant the doctors a license to practice without a state examination in Germany, was unsuccessful. It was probably due to the fact that hacker was still very busy, that she did not register until 1908 for a check in Germany, which failed due to their early death but ultimately. [1] : 62

In 1997, a street was named in her honor in the so-called Ärztinnenviertel in Berlin-Altglienicke . Further streets received the names of Dorothea Erxleben , Emilie Lehmus, Josepha von Siebold , Franziska Tiburtius and Martha Ruben-Wolf (1887-1939).

Her sister Adrienne Hacker, a painter, lived together with the doctor Agnes Bluhm in Berlin until her death in 1916, with whom she was also buried in a common burial place. Another sister, Anna, was married to the court actor Arthur Kraußneck (born April 9, 1856 Good Ballethen in East Prussia, † April 21, 1941 in Berlin, real name Arthur Carl Gustav Müller).

Shortly after her arrival in Berlin in 1898, Agnes Hacker began her work in the Berlin clinic of female doctors . Not least her experience in surgery, previously in Zurich, Vienna and Leipzig, benefited her there. She herself attached greater importance to this activity than to practical work. From 1905, the year she resigned as a police doctor, she also took over the management of the clinic, which was reflected in the number of operations performed. [4] : 226 While the number of operations was well on the level of comparable latches, Hackers pushed ahead clinically with an extension of the clinic. To this end, she founded in 1908, with the already no longer practicing Franziska Tiburtius, the union of female doctors to found a women's hospital in Greater Berlin . [1] : 58 f. 17 of the 18 Berlin doctors became members. The target was the large gynecological clinics in Boston , London or New York in view and planned the construction of a new hospital. Due to the busy club activities, the nursing station could be expanded within the Knoop Hospital (Karl-Schrader-Straße 10). The operating room was equipped with state-of-the-art doctors' own resources, with Agnes Hacker approving most of it. The clinic was her center of life. She moved into the clinic, where she was a family doctor and was, according to Agnes Bluhm, "at the same time the caring nurse". Soon after her death, the association "Frauenwohl" established the "Agnes Hacker Foundation", from which a pool was financed. [1] : 58 f. For Agnes Hacker it was of fundamental importance to set up a clinic "designed exclusively for women and built by a female architect [...]" under the guidance of female doctors. [4] : 227 In the end, the construction of the new hospital failed to materialize. After Hacker's early death, it lacked a successor who could have continued the project. [4] : 229

As a police adviser, it was Agnes Hacker's job to carry out the initial examinations of women who actually or allegedly followed prostitution and live in Berlin. The fact that she was able to pursue this task, especially as a doctor not certified in Germany, was probably due to the so-called morality movement. After numerous attacks by the male-dominated police, it was not only from the environment of the women's movement to the demand for female moralists. A debate on this problem area has been conducted more broadly within the " abolitionist movement." It should be noted that Hacker's activity in the circle of the " International Abolitionist Federation ", to which she herself belonged, was viewed quite critically. But it was important to her "[...] to mitigate the severity of a system that she fought but still exists [...]". [1] : 60 f. Agnes Hacker was a member of numerous other associations and organizations dedicated to the fight against traditional morality and the restriction of women in their rights, including the " German Society for the Control of Sexually Transmitted Diseases ", the Berlin Association for Women 's Welfare since its founding in 1902 " German Association for Women's Voting Rights ", the association "Frauenbildung - Frauenstudium" and as board member of the " German Lyceum-Club ". She was also co-signatory of the founding appeal of the " German Bund for Maternity Protection and Sexual Reform " (as one of only a few doctors) and participated as a member of the "Commission for the Improvement of Morality" within the " Federation of German Women's Associations " on a petition on the subject of sexually transmitted diseases , [1] : 61 In 1904 she spoke as one of the few female votants at the annual meeting of the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee in Berlin. [9]

According to Agnes Bluhm, Hacker was a vehement advocate of the women's movement's approach that the best doctor for a woman should also be female. Apparently, her contemporaries felt that she was so close to the positions of the women's movement that in late 1907 she was asked to travel to Toronto as a Section Health expert for the General Assembly of the International Women's Association . Thanking Marie Stritt for the honor, she announced that she wanted to encourage more women to travel. Due to her illness, she could no longer start the crossing. [1] : 63

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