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Image result for William II of the NetherlandsWilliam II (Willem Frederik George Lodewijk, anglicized as William Frederick George Louis; 6 December 1792 – 17 March 1849) was King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, and Duke of Limburg.

William II was the son of William I and Wilhelmine of Prussia. When his father, who up to that time ruled as sovereign prince, proclaimed himself king in 1815, he became Prince of Orange as heir apparent of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. With the abdication of his father on 7 October 1840, William II became king. During his reign, the Netherlands became a parliamentary democracy with the new constitution of 1848.

When William was two, he and his family fled to England after allied British-Hanoverian troops left the Republic and entering French troops defeated the army of the United Provinces, claiming liberation by joining the anti-Orangist Patriots. William spent his youth in Berlin at the Prussian court, where he followed a military education and served in the Prussian Army. After this, he studied civil law at Christ Church, University of Oxford.[1][2][3] William II had a string of relationships with both men and women which led him to be blackmailed.[4][5][6][7] The homosexual relationships that William II had as crown prince and as king were reported by journalist Eillert Meeter.[8] The king surrounded himself with male servants whom he could not dismiss because of his 'abominable motive' for hiring them in the first place.[9]

William II was married to Anna Pavlovna of Russia. They had four sons and one daughter. William II died on 17 March 1849 and was succeeded by his son William III.

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  1. DBNL. "Nieuw Nederlandsch biografisch woordenboek. Deel 1 · dbnl". DBNL (in Dutch). Retrieved 2017-09-01.
  2. "Z.M. (koning Willem II) koning Willem Frederik George Lodewijk, koning der Nederlanden, groothertog van Luxemburg, hertog van Limburg, prins van Oranje-Nassau". www.parlement.com (in Dutch). Retrieved 2017-09-01.
  3. "Willem Frederik George Lodewijk (1792-1849)". www.scheveningen1813-2013.nl. Retrieved 2017-09-01.
  4. News, Gay. "Intense Male Friendships Made King Willem II Liable to Blackmail". www.gay-news.com. Retrieved 2017-09-01.
  5. Jeroen van, Zanten (2013). Koning Willem II : 1792-1849. dl. 2. Amsterdam: Boom. ISBN 9461051859. OCLC 864666575.
  6. "Willem II: intelligent, chantabel en in de knel". NRC (in Dutch). Retrieved 2017-09-01.
  7. "BOEKEN: Jeroen van Zanten, Koning Willem II (1792-1849)". Historisch Nieuwsblad (in Dutch). Retrieved 2017-09-01.
  8. Meeter, E. (1857). Holland: its institutions, its press, kings and prisons.
  9. Meeter, E. (1857). Holland: its institutions, its press, kings and prisons. p. 320.
  10. "No. 16494". The London Gazette. 11 June 1811. p. 1068.
  11. "No. 16533". The London Gazette. 22 October 1811. p. 2033.
  12. "No. 16642". The London Gazette. 8 September 1812. p. 1812.
  13. "No. 16824". The London Gazette. 14 December 1813. p. 2528.
  14. Andrew Bamford (2014). "The British Army in the Low Countries, 1813-1814" (PDF). The Napoleon Series. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  15. "No. 16915". The London Gazette. 9 July 1814. p. 1393.
  16. "No. 16924". The London Gazette. 9 August 1814. p. 1609.
  17. Hofschröer, Peter, 1815, The Waterloo Campaign, The German Victory p137, p200.
  18. "Willem II, Koning (1792-1849)". Het Koninklijk Huis (in Dutch). Retrieved 15 December 2014.
  19. "Geschiedenis van het Paleis Soestdijk". Paleis Soestdijk (in Dutch). Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  20. Siborne, William. "History of the War in France and Belgium in 1815", 1844
  21. Knoop, Willem Jan. "Beschouwingen over Siborne’s Geschiedenis van den Oorlog van 1815", 1846
  22. Historisch Nieuwsblad, June 2015: "Willem II en de Slag bij Waterloo - 1815"
  23. "Koning Willem II gechanteerd wegens homoseksualiteit".
  24. Hermans, Dorine and Hooghiemstra, Daniela: Voor de troon wordt men niet ongestrafd geboren, ooggetuigen van de koningen van Nederland 1830–1890, ISBN 978-90-351-3114-9, 2007.
  25. "9 December 1813 Het verheugd Rotterdam ontvangt Koning Willem I". Engelfriet.net. Retrieved 2014-05-14.
  26. "De Grondwet van 1814". Republikanisme.nl. Retrieved 2014-05-14.