Kronberg Castle, Schloßstraße 10, 61476 Kronberg im Taunus, Germania
Philipp, Prince and Landgrave of Hesse (6 November 1896 – 25 October 1980) was head of the Electoral House of Hesse from 1940 to 1980.
He joined the Nazi Party in 1930, and, when they gained power with the appointment of Adolf Hitler as Chancellor in 1933, he became Governor of Hesse-Nassau. However, he fell out with the Nazis, was arrested in 1943, dismissed as governor the following year and then was sent to the Flossenbürg concentration camp, then Dachau, where he remained until being transported to Tyrol by the SS, where he was liberated by Wehrmacht forces on 30 April 1945 and then arrested by U.S. forces on 4 May 1945, being interned until 1947.
He was a grandson of Frederick III, German Emperor, and a great-grandson of Queen Victoria, as well as the son-in-law to Victor Emmanuel III of Italy. His relative Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh was named after him.
According to biographer Jonathan Petropoulos, Philipp was probably bisexual, and his lovers included the English poet Siegfried Sassoon.
He married Princess Mafalda of Savoy, daughter of King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, on 23 September 1925 at the Castello di Racconigi near Turin. The couple had four children:
The family lived mostly at Villa Polissena (named after Queen Polissena), part of Villa Savoia, the king of Italy's estate on the outskirts of Rome. But they also travelled frequently to Germany.