Queer Places:
Via di Corbignano, 4, 50135 Firenze FI
114 Clifton Hill, St Johns Wood NW8 0JS

NPG x48148; Edward Hutton - Portrait - National Portrait GalleryEdward Hutton (12 April 1875 – 20 August 1969) was a British author of travel books and various Italian subjects. During World War II he aided in the protection of Italian historical sites.

Edward Hutton was born in Hampstead, London, his father being a businessman with interests in Sheffield. He was educated at Highgate School but on the death of his father in 1890 his mother removed with her six children to Somerset and Edward went as a day boy to Blundell's School, Tiverton. From an early age he applied himself to the study of the Greek and Roman classics. Instead of going up to Oxford, and having decided he was to be a writer, he chose to work in publishing in London. An unrewarding first position gave place to one with John Lane, founder of the Bodley Head, and publisher of the major works of 'the nineties' (which significantly influenced his style). Inheriting £5000 on his coming of age in 1896 he made his first journey to Italy and from then on he spent most of his life getting to know the Italians and their civilization. In 1898 he married Charlotte Miles, daughter of George Miles, a tea merchant in the City of London. From around 1901 they rented the Villa di Boccaccio at Settignano above Florence, which city became Hutton's spiritual home. The many English residents there who became his friends included Bernard Berenson and Norman Douglas while in 1917 he was instrumental with others in establishing the British Institute of Florence. When he was 27 he published his first books on Italian themes, Italy and the Italians, and Studies in the Lives of the Saints. His love of Italy and the Italian way of life led to his conversion to Roman Catholicism in 1928. In 1905 he published the first of his series of nine illustrated books on different regions of Italy, The Cities of Umbria. His writing was not confined to Italy, however, and there were single books on Greece and Spain and also three in the Highways and Byways series, on Somerset, Wiltshire and Gloucestershire. The Second World War with its threat to Italy's cultural heritage caused him great distress but he was influential in saving some of this by producing extensive lists for the Allied Intelligence Corps of what it was essential to protect. During these dark days he took on another role as designer of a cosmatesque floor for Westminster Cathedral and another for Buckfast Abbey. After the war he published a valuable book cataloguing the surviving Cosmati pavements in Italy. During the 1950s he revisited the themes of six of his earlier works. Completely revised and re-written, now with black and white photographs and published by Hollis and Carter, they are essentially new books. Hutton was highly honoured by Italy for his services to that country. In 1917 he was made a Cavaliere of the Order of the Crown of Italy; at age 83 the Italian government conferred on him the Commendatore of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic and at 90 he was awarded the Medaglia culturale d'oro.[3] For fifty years Hutton lived in Clifton Hill, St John's Wood, London, in a house once occupied by the Victorian painter William Powell Frith (who is commemorated by a blue plaque on the façade). He died on 20 August 1969; his wife had died in 1960.[4]

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  1. "Edward Hyde, 3rd Earl of Clarendon". The Peerage. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  2. Bonomi (1998) page 31
  3. Bonomi, (1998), page 32
  4. Here the word “reformed” refers to a broad spectrum of protestant groups that tend to be Bible-focused rather than tradition-focused, devoted to simplicity in lifestyle & worship, and more authoritarian. The distinction here is between Anglicanism and other Protestant sects – known in 17th century England as “dissenters” or “”non-conformists.”
  5. The Clarendon Code(enacted 1661-1665) was a series of laws that re-established the Church of England as the state religion, while excluding both Catholicism & “nonconformist” (aka “dissenting”) Protestant religions (i.e. Presbyterianism, Calvinism, Puritanism, Dutch Reformed, etc.) See also http://www.britainexpress.com/History/stuart/clarendon-code.htm
  6. Bonomi (1998), page 33
  7. See Wiltshire County section of The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1660-1690, ed. B.D. Henning, (1983) and 1690-1715, ed. D. Hayton, E. Cruickshanks, S. Handley, 2002 (Found at http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/ ) These accounts detail the political maneuvering that led to Cornbury’s election.
  8. Known as the “Bloody Assizes
  9. Bonomi (1998), page 38
  10. Later known as the “Immortal Seven.”
  11. Entry Glorious Revolution in the Titi Tudorancea Enclycopedia, https://www.tititudorancea.net/z/glorious_revolution.htm See also http://www.berkshirehistory.com/bios/hhyde_2eofc.html
  12. Bonomi (1998), pages 38-39; See also Stone (1892), pages 55-56.
  13. See University of Nottingham’s map of Wiliam’s invasion route at: https://www.nottingham.ac.uk/manuscriptsandspecialcollections/documents/elearning/conflict/williamoforangeitinerary-illustration5.pdf
  14. However, the war continued in Ireland until the Battle of the Boyne on 1 July 1690.
  15. George, King of Denmark, had married Cornbury’s cousin Anne, soon to be Queen of England. The couple lived in London with little real political power until 1702.
  16. See Booth, Mary L (1859), Chapters I-III
  17. Wilson (1892) pages 150-154
  18. Reynolds (1906), pages 63-65
  19. Booth (1859), pages 220-239
  20. The first elected assembly in New York had met on 17 October 1683, under Governor Dongan. Booth (1859), pages 207-208. During Leisler’s government, the New York Assembly firmly established its authority. See Vermilye, Ashbel G (1892), The Earl of Bellomont and Suppression of Piracy, 1698-1701 in The Memorial History of the City of New York Volume II, ed James Wilson, New York History Company pages 15-16.
  21. Booth (1859), pages 239-240
  22. Stone (1892), page 58-60
  23. Booth (1859) page 260
  24. Stone (1892), page 57
  25. Peter Kalm, (1749), Travels into North America Vol 1 pages 253-258 and 243-245; reprinted in Stevens, Guy (1909), Selections from the Economic History of the United States, 1765-1860 Callender Ed, Boston: Ginn and Co. pages 16-20.
  26. Booth (1859) pages 254-256
  27. Reynolds (1906) page 163
  28. Vermilye (1892), page 33
  29. See entries on Louis-Hector de Calliere by Yves F Zoltvany, and on Teganissorens by WJ Eccles, Dictionary of Canadian Biography Volume II (1701-1740), University of Toronto, accessed 23 June 2017.
  30. For example, on 8 February 1690, a native attack eradicated the village of Corlaer (Now Schenectady, 19 miles northwest of Albany NY.) See also Beck, Sanderson (2016): New England 1664-1744 & New York to Pennsylvania 1664-1744 in Ethics of Civilization Vol 11, America to 1744, ISBN Q-9762210-7-1
  31. William Glidden, The English Stone Fortress: Fort Frederick, Lake Champlain Weekly (17 September 2003) Quoted at: http://dmna.ny.gov/forts/fortsE_L/frederickFort.htm
  32. See Reynolds (1906) page 157 for the previous governor’s (Earl of Bellomont) report of the conditions at Albany in 1700.
  33. Stone (1892) pages 60-61
  34. Cliff Lamere, Fort Albany & Fort Frederick at Albany NY at: http://www.genealogy.clifflamere.com/Aid/History/FortFrederick-Albany-working.htm
  35. Bonomi (1998), page 64
  36. Stone (1892), pages 65-66
  37. Known at the time as the North River.
  38. Stone (1892), page 69; Booth (1859), pages 276-278.
  39. The plan was to repair and fortify blockhouses originally built by the Dutch – One on Signal Hill on Staten Island (built 1653, later known as Flagstaff Fort [1776] and Fort Tompkins [1806]). Another blockhouse stood in the village of New Utrecht on the Brooklyn side (built 1657, later Fort Hamilton [1826]). England was supposed to supply cannon, but they never arrived. Bonomi (1998) page 83.
  40. Peartree had been appointed mayor because of his former experience as a privateer. See Booth (1859), page 281
  41. The Assembly’s subsequent inquiry discovered that tax collectors only raised £398 of the total. The money had been placed in the hands of the colonial receiver of revenues. Bonomi (1998), pages 82-85. In spite of these findings, historians have continued to cite the charge as proof of Cornbury’s incompetence. Compare Stone (1892) page 70 with page 73. See also, Booth (1859), pages 276-281.
  42. Stone (1892) page 73. In England, the Parliament House of Commons has the “power of the purse” – sole control over taxation and funding of major undertakings. A “Charter of Liberties” had been enacted by the New York Assembly in 1683 but they were annulled by Queen Mary II in 1691 (Booth [1859] p 207-208, 240)
  43. Stone (1892) page 70
  44. Stone (1892) pages 70-71
  45. Stone 1892, page 65
  46. Other ministers had warned Makemie about meeting the legal requirements, so the subject of Makemie’s sermon was “We ought to obey God, rather than Men.” (Acts 5:29) Wilson (1892) page 81
  47. Cornbury accused Makemie of being a “Disturber of Governments”. See David Hall, Francis Makemie and Freedom of Speech in The Aquila Report 25 January 2015; and Wilson (1892) p 82.
  48. The decision has been hailed as a landmark for American religious freedom. See Francis Makemie, Presbyterian Pioneer, by Kirk Mariner. http://francismakemiesociety.org/files/Download/Francis%20Makemie%20-%20Presbyterian%20Pioneer%20by%20Kirk%20Mariner.pdf
  49. Makemie's published account of the event can be found in Rev. Francis Makemie: A Narrative of a New and Unusual American Imprisonment of Two Presbyterian Ministers And Prosecution of Mr. Francis Makemie in William Henry Foote (1850), Foote's Sketches of Virginia (First Book) pages 65-84 http://www.roanetnhistory.org/foote-virginia.php?loc=Foote-Sketches-Virginia-First&pgid=92
  50. Bonomi 1998, page 70. That same year, Governor Cornbury established the first free grammar school in New York City. Booth, (1859) page 273-274
  51. Not the current King’s College of New York, which was founded in 1938
  52. McCaughey, Robert (2003). Stand, Columbia : A History of Columbia University in the City of New York. New York, New York: Columbia University Press. p. 1. ISBN 0-231-13008-2.
  53. Matthews, Brander; John Pine; Harry Peck; Munroe Smith (1904). A History of Columbia University: 1754–1904. London, England: Macmillan Company. pp. 8–10.
  54. http://www.hollandsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/dHM-2011-Summer-Vol-LXXXIV-Nr-2-A.pdf
  55. Valentine, David Ed (1853) History of the City of New York McSperton & Baset Printers
  56. Bonomi (1998), pages 62-64.
  57. Haefeli, Evan; Sweeney, Kevin (2003): Captors and Captives: The 1704 French and Indian Raid on Deerfield. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press. Page 191. ISBN 978-1-55849-503-6. OCLC 493973598.
  58. Williams, John (1853) The Redeemed Captive Returning to Zion, Northampton: Hopkins, Bridgman & Co, p 51 (Originally published 1707).
  59. Waller, G M, (1960) Samuel Vetch: Colonial Enterpriser. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, for the Institute of Early American History and Culture at Williamsburg, Va pages x & 311.
  60. A complete account of the political climate and Vetch’s lobbying efforts can be found in: Alsop, James D, Samuel Vetch’s ‘Canada Survey’d’: The Formation of a Colonial Strategy 1706-1710 in Acadiensis Vol XII No 1, Autumn 1982. See especially p 57 https://journals.lib.unb.ca/index.php/acadiensis
  61. On 3 December 1706, he was appointed Secretary of State for the Southern Department (Southern England, Wales, Ireland & the American colonies.)
  62. Alsop (1982) p. 45.
  63. Alsop (1982) p. 45.
  64. The selection of Lord Lovelace in March as governor of New York raised expectations that the colony would play a more active role in the war.” Alsop (1982) page 57.
  65. Marlborough’s victory at Oudenarde in July 1708 relieved the need for a Canadian expedition, which might have complicated peace negotiations underway during April & May of 1709.
  66. Since 1705, both the New York & New Jersey Assemblies had refused to appropriate funds for the governor’s salary and for support of the colonial garrison. Both were forced to survive on borrowed funds.
  67. The welcoming banquet cost £46 7s. 6d. which Cornbury borrowed from Henry Swift, a wealthy merchant. The New York Assembly refused to reimburse the sum, which only added to Cornbury’s debt burden. Wilson 1892, page 100.
  68. Wilson (1892), page 135
  69. Sunderland was dismissed as Secretary of State on 13 June 1710 with the arrival of the Tory Harley Cabinet on 11 August 1710.
  70. Bonomi (1998), page 51 His name has been replaced by John Leake in the Wikipedia First Admiralty entry. Compare Wikipedia John Leake entry.
  71. James Edward was the son of James II who had been deposed during the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and died in 1701.
  72. Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford, lived 1661-1724. As Queen Anne’s Lord High Treasurer (1711-1714), he was responsible for restructuring the national debt incurred during the war. His solution was the formation of a joint-stock company, the South Sea Company (1711). Due to fraud, insider trading, and bribery, the scheme collapsed after 1721. Shares were issued at £100, reached a high of £1000 in 1720, and fell to less than nominal value by 1721. Much of the aristocracy—including Harley--was ruined financially by the scheme. There's no evidence of Cornbury's involvement.
  73. Bonomi (1998), pages 52-55
  74. Bonomi (1998), pages 54-55.
  75. Quote from Shelly Ross (1988), Fall from Grace: Sex, Scandal and Corruption in American Politics from 1702 to Present, Random House, page 4
  76. Wilson (1892), page 77
  77. Wilson 1892, pages 84-85
  78. For example, Marlborough, Sunderland, Harley, and Governors Slaughter, Bellomont, Hunter et al. see Booth (1859) pages 232, 245, 285-286, & 292 and Wilson (1892), page 104
  79. Horace's father, Prime Minister Robert Walpole (Whig), served in the Sunderland ministry that recalled Cornbury from the colonies.
  80. Bonomi (1998) page 15. See also: Benson, Eric, “English King Appoints Drag Queen”, The Complete History of Scandals, New York Magazine News & Politics 2 April 2012
  81. Quote from Kristan Aiken (18 February 2002) Columbia University: A Social History http://cuhistory3057.tripod.com/hyde/id1.html
  82. Matthews, Brander; John Pine; Harry Peck; Munroe Smith (1904), A History of Columbia University: 1754–1904. London, England: Macmillan Company, pages 8–10.
  83. Quote from Bonomi (1998), page 141
  84. For more information, see Norton, Rictor, Homosexuality in Eighteenth-Century England. http://www.rictornorton.co.uk/eighteen/molly2.html[permanent dead link]
  85. Bonomi, Patricia (Jan 1994) U. Lord Cornbury Redressed: The Governor and the Problem Portrait. William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, Volume 51, Issue 1, pages 106-118.
  86. Eric Pace, “A Tempest in a Portrait: Was that Lady a Lord?” New York Times 30 May 1990 https://www.nytimes.com/1990/05/30/nyregion/a-tempest-in-a-portrait-was-that-lady-a-lord.html
  87. "Portrait of a Lady, Possibly Edward Hyde, Lord Cornbury in a Dress - DMA Collection Online". Dma.org. Retrieved 2017-10-07.
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  89. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 April 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  90. Hoffman, William M. (ed) (1979). Gay Plays: The First Collection. New York, New York: Avon Books. pp. 413–14. ISBN 0380427885.
  91. Isherwood, Charles (2009-01-30). "The Man Who Would Be Queen". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-10-11.