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Karlbergsvägen 86B, 113 35 Stockholm, Sweden
Rörstrandsgatan 46, 113 40 Stockholm, Sweden
Sturegatan 22, 752 23 Uppsala, Sweden

Emilia Fogelklou under 1930-taletEmilia Maria Fogelklou-Norlind (July 20, 1878 – September 26, 1972) was a Swedish educator, theologian, historian of religion and author. She became a bachelor of philosophy in 1906, theology candidate (the first female in Sweden) in 1909, and theology honorary doctor (also the first female), in Uppsala in 1941.

Emilia Fogelklou was the fifth child of hardened writer Johan Fogelklou and his wife Maria Persson. In 1899 she graduated from the Higher Teacher Seminary in Stockholm. [2] One day in May 1902 Fogelklou was sitting on a bench on Föreningsgatan in Gothenburg when she had a vision that came to characterize her life, a light that she interpreted as The Great Mercy and she felt delivered and fear disappeared. [3][4] Fogelklou worked as a teacher for 20 years with interruptions to further education. In 1922, she married the cultural geographer Arnold Norlind. They got only seven years together, Norlind died February 17, 1929. Fogelklou published the book Arnold in 1944.

Fogelklou received his first teaching position in Landskrona at the Elementary School for Girls in 1899. [a] She stayed for two years and then received an offer of a position at the newly opened higher joint school in Gothenburg. With the new century came a new approach to child rearing in the spirit of Ellen Key, which appealed to Fogelklou. [5] She then started further education at the University of Gothenburg. In 1911 Fogelkou accepted a teaching position at Djursholm's joint school,where Natanael Beskow was principal. Among other things, she was a teacher of Christianity and wrestled with the Orthodox syllabus. Beskow, who had left the state church and sometimes preached in Djursholm's chapel, supported her. Fogelklou was a committed educator and was appreciated by the students. She wanted to make the children think freely and take responsibility. [3][5] In 1916 she was offered a teaching position at the new folk high school at Birkagården in Stockholm. Birkagården was a homestead[b] that had been started by Beskow and Ebba Pauli in 1912. Birkagården became as a second home for Fogelklou. [7] After the war, Fogelklou had to seek a more paid job in order to support both her mother and herself. She received a position as lecturer at the elementary school teacher seminary in Kalmar in 1918. But even there she wrestled with Christianity teaching and wrote her own syllabus. [3] In 1923 she resigned from the lecturership and devoted herself entirely to writing and lecture activities. She first lectured at the Social Institute and Stockholm University, and later as a guest lecturer at the Women's Civic School at Fogelstad until 1934. [8]

Fogelklou studied sociology at the University of Gothenburg. In 1906 she moved to Uppsala and received a Bachelor's degree in five subjects in one year: literary history, history of religion, pedagogy, theoretical and practical philosophy. She continued to study religious studies under Nathan Söderblom and received a bachelor's degree in theology as a first woman in 1909. [10] She received a scholarship from the Olaus Petri Foundation for the study of "current philosophical movements" in England, France and Italy. [2] In 1930, Fogelklou received the Sweden-America Foundation's scholarship studies in sociology and applied psychology at Columbia University. [2]

Fogelklou was the first woman in Sweden to graduate with bachelor's degree in theology in 1909. She had no ambition to become a priest, but argued that women should be admitted to office. She preferred to write and teach and became a Christianity teacher in Djursholm's co-school (1911-1916). Fogelklou wanted to convey and explain the essence of religious experience. It happened that she preached in the chapel where Natanael Beskow was a preacher. [10][11] She was a seeker and mystic and was always prepared to engage with dissidents. [12] In 1927, quakers began to be organized at Birkagården through Dagny Thorvall's care. Fogelklou participated in these devotionals and a few years later she and Thorvall applied for membership of the English Society of Friends. The Swedish group of friends slowly began to grow and Fogelklou's friend Elin Wägner joined in 1936 as a member number 25. The Society of Friends approved the application and the Swedish section of Quakers was formed. [14] In 1938, Uppsala University announced a professorship in religious history and Fogelklou was invited to apply for the position. But she was incompetent, which took her hard. In 1941 she was awarded an honorary doctorate in theology. [3]

Fogelklou learned the cultures of other countries through his many trips abroad. In 1910 she received a travel scholarship from the Olaus Petri Foundation and was able to travel in Europe for a year.

In the summer of 1913 Fogelklou travelled to Iceland with her friend Herta Svensson. After interesting meetings in Copenhagen, they took the boat to Reykjavik. In Iceland, she studied the transition from pagan to Christian faith. [16] In the spring of 1915, she travelled by train through a war-torn Europe to attend the Hague at an international suffrage conference as one of 13 Swedish participants. 1100 women from both warring and neutral countries had gathered to protest against the First World War. Fogelklou made new contacts with Elin Wägner, among others. [17] A Zorn scholarship from the Sweden-America Foundation enabled a trip to study sociology in multicultural and segregated American society. [3] In September 1930, she received accommodation at the International House of New York and participated in the academic circles of Columbia University. In 1933 Fogelklou studied at Woodbrooke College in Birmingham, England. [c][3]

She participated in peace work early on and participated at the Hague Congress in 1915 when the International League for Peace and Freedom was formed. [18] When she became a Quaker, she got in touch with Per Sundberg, who was the principal of the boarding school in Viggbyholm. The school became a focal point for many peace activists in the 1930s. In early 1937, a peace conference was held, where military and radical pacifists were spoken to. [9] During World War II, Fogelklou began to engage in aid to refugees. In 1942, she met Wolfgang Sonntag[d] who proposed the formation of international teams for reconstruction work as soon as the war ended. A meeting is organized at Viggbyholmsskolan with, among others, Per Sundberg and Gunnar Cederschiöld and Swedish International teams and the "Peace Academy" was formed. [19] After World War II, Fogelklou was a curator at a refugee camp on Visingsö for 300 Polskor from German concentration camps. [20]

One of her friends was Florrie Hamilton and Fogelklou lived in one of the buildings at Högfors manor from 1946 to 1951 and wrote the autobiographical Barhuvad (1950). She started family therapeutic activities in Norberg and Västerås (and was an honorary member of the Swedish Association for Mental Health). Selection of letters 1945-1971 between Fogelklou and Hamilton has been published. [21][22] Fogelklou lived in the old people's home Andreas And in Uppsala. She died there in September 1972. The centenary of Fogelklou's theology bachelor's degree was celebrated September 15, 2009 with lunch and seminars at the Department of Theology at Uppsala University. [23]

Fogelklou published some 30 books and several small writings, including four collections of essays studying philosophical, religious, literary subjects and three major works on Christian mystics. [24] Her religious writing is extensive and has been of great importance. A special position takes on her autobiographical works. She was married to cultural geographer Arnold Norlind from 1922 until his death in 1929. Her book about him (Arnold, 1944) is considered to be at the top of her writing. Also interesting is her letters, such as the correspondence with Elin Wägner (Dear Ili, dearest Elin, published by Gunnel Vallquist in 1989).


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