Partner Ethel B. Power
112 Charles St, Boston, MA 02114
112 Pinckney St, Boston, MA 02114
Amelia Peabody Plywood House, 145 Powisset St, Dover, MA 02030
Anderson Townhouse, 47 Chestnut St, Boston, MA 02108
Barnes Townhouse, 46 Chestnut St, Boston, MA 02108
Bowditch House, 31 Fayerweather St, Cambridge, MA 02138
Bowman Townhouse, 139 Bay State Rd, Boston, MA 02215
Claude B. Cross House, 255 Dudley St, Brookline, MA 02445
Crosby Townhouse, 9 Louisburg Square, Boston, MA 02108
Dorothy Ellis House, Haddam, CT 06438
Frank E. Barnes House, 3 Berkeley Ave, Haverhill, MA 01830
Gardiner Townhouse, 29B Chestnut St, Boston, MA 02108
George Olmstead, Jr. House, 25 Glenoe Rd, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467
Gring House, 15 Hubbard Park Rd, Cambridge, MA 02138
Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138
Henry E. Wile House, 141 Meadowbrook Rd, Weston, MA 02493
Henry E. Wile House, 50 Manemet Rd, Newton, MA 02459
Herford N. Elliott House, 20 Hildreth St, Westford, MA 01886
Horace Frost House, 16 Longfellow Park, Cambridge, MA 02138
James H. Cleaves House, 10 Lawrence St, Winchester, MA 01890
Johannet Landscaping, 77 Country Club Ln, Belmont, MA 02478
Manville House, 172 Beacon St, Boston, MA 02116
Marian Farnsworth House, Exmoor Farm, 751 Boston Post Rd, Weston, MA 02493
Mary Byers Smith House, 57 Central St, Andover, MA 01810
Mill Farm, 129 Dedham St, Dover, MA 02030
Miller House, 502 Hale St, Beverly, MA 01915
N. M. Safford House, 65 Brook Hill Rd, Milton, MA 02186
Natalie Hays Hammond Compound, 65 Dolliver Neck Rd, Gloucester, MA 01930
Nichols Factory, 48 Woerd Ave, Waltham, MA 02453
Paine House, 45 Jefferson Rd, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467
Parker Plywood House, 7 Ledgewood Rd, Winchester, MA 01890
Quincy W. & Isabelle Wales House, 21 Sylvan Ave, Newton, MA 02465
Rachel Raymond House, 9 Park Ave, Belmont, MA 02478
Richard Lennihan House, 3 Bates St, Cambridge, MA 02140
Schroeder House, 9 Follen St, Cambridge, MA 02138
Singer Townhouse, 101 Chestnut St, Boston, MA 02108
Smith Townhouse, 89 Pinckney St, Boston, MA 02114
Stackpole House, 56 Morton Rd, Milton, MA 02186
Sugarman House, 72 Arlington Rd, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467
Theodore T. Miller House, 105 Juniper Rd, Belmont, MA 02478
Thompson House, 22 Larch Rd, Cambridge, MA 02138
Wellesley College, 106 Central St, Wellesley, MA 02481
White House, 115 Juniper Rd, Belmont, MA 02478
William K. Jackson House, 169 Chestnut Hill Rd, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467
Williams House, 11 Main St, Rockport, MA 01966
Eleanor Raymond (March 24, 1887 – 1989) was an American architect with a professional career of some sixty years of practice, mainly in residential housing. She designed one of the first International Style houses in the United States, in 1931. She also explored the use of innovative materials and building systems, designing a plywood house in 1940 as well as one of the first successful solar-heated buildings in the Northeast, the “Sun House”, in 1948.
Raymond was born in 1888 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1887, and graduated with a bachelor's degree from Wellesley College in 1909. After graduating from Wellesley, Raymond traveled in Europe for a year, visiting France, England, Germany and Italy. Here she saw the places that had formed the backdrop of her college studies, the parks, villas, churches, towns, and cities that were to quicken her interest in gardens and buildings. Inspired by her Wellesley landscape course and her travels to Europe, she now wished to continue her study of landscape architecture. After graduation, she enrolled in the Cambridge School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, a school that was then closely affiliated with Harvard’s School of Architecture. She was among five women architectural design students of Henry Atherton Frost and Bremer Whidden Pond in 1915, the school's first year of operation. It was there that she developed her lifelong interest in the relationship between architecture and landscape architecture. She graduated from the school in 1919. In 1919 she opened an office in partnership with Henry Atherton Frost and in 1928 she began her own office in Boston, Massachusetts. These offices produced a domestic architecture that was noteworthy at that time and is even more relevant to the concerns of architecture today.
Raymond took part in a number of social movements of her day, including the women's suffrage movement and the settlement house movement. It was through a suffragist organization that she met her life partner, Ethel B. Power, who went on to attend and graduate from the Cambridge School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture as well. Raymond and Power — who became a longtime editor for House Beautiful magazine — remained together for more than half a century, until Power's death in 1969.
Raymond renovated a townhouse at 112 Charles St. in Boston as a group home for herself, Power, and other women. It was planned for the needs of businesswomen who required some work space at home and who needed the house to be as "self-running" as possible, which led to a reduction in the footprints of both dining room and kitchen.
On graduating, Raymond joined Frost's practice as his sole partner (she had previously been working for him as a draftsperson while a student). Raymond opened her own office in 1928 after working with Frost for several years. She was drawn to the simple vernacular structures expressive of rural American life, avoiding the grand facades and the exclusively modern styles that were popular with her contemporaries. In 1931, after five years of work, Raymond published Early Domestic Architecture of Pennsylvania, in which she explored what she called the “unstudied directness in fitting form to function” of very early American architecture. The book was one of the first systematic inventories of vernacular American architecture and defined Raymond’s career.
Raymond became increasingly known for primarily residential designs that took cues from early American architecture, as well as for her restoration and remodeling work, which approached modern-day adaptive reuse. Raymond always worked within the “three fields” of a house — the exterior, interior, and landscape — and maintained that the architect must always know how the client will use the house. Much of her work was commissioned by women from her social group in Boston and Cambridge. One client called her “an architect who combines a respect for tradition with a disrespect for its limitations.” The author of a monograph on her life praised her work for its "subtle simplicity without succumbing to architectural exhibitionism".
In her fusion of European and American influences, some scholars see Raymond as attempting to create a kind of regional modernism. The Rachel Raymond House (built for her sister in 1931 and demolished in 2006), for example, fuses the stark International-Style rectilinear forms of the exterior with an interior rich in traditional built-in cupboards, decorative wood trim, and antique hardware. The Rachel Raymond House was a manifestation of a Northeastern regional modernism that predates by six years a Lincoln, Massachusetts, house by Walter Gropius that is often singled out as the first manifestation of an American regional modernism.
In 1948, Raymond undertook one of her most ambitious works, the Dover Sun House, an innovative house with solar collectors, with Dr. Mária Telkes from the MIT Solar Laboratory. Eleanor Raymond amassed more than 50 years of professional experience in the practice of architecture and in 1961 was made a fellow of the American Institute of Architects.
Raymond was a member of the American Institute of Architects, and in 1961 was elected an AIA fellow.
In 1977 her work was exhibited in Women in American Architecture at the Brooklyn Museum.
Raymond died in Boston, Massachusetts, on July 4, 1989, at the age of 102.
A collection of Raymond's blueprints, papers, diaries, letters, and scrapbooks documenting some 200 of her buildings are held by the Harvard Graduate School of Design. A portfolio of materials about her architectural work is held by the museum Historic New England and includes a number of articles by Power about Raymond.
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