Partner Leander Starr Jameson, buried together

Queer Places:
Rhodes Arts Complex, 1-3 South Rd, Bishop's Stortford CM23 3JG, Regno Unito
University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, Regno Unito
King Edward St, Oxford OX1 4HT, Regno Unito
Brown's Hotel, Albemarle St, Mayfair, London W1S 4BP, Regno Unito
Westminster Abbey, 20 Deans Yd, Westminster, London SW1P 3PA, Regno Unito
Malindidzimu Hill or World’s View, Matopo National Park, Zimbabwe

Cecil John Rhodes PC (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902)[1] was a British businessman, mining magnate and politician in southern Africa who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1890 to 1896. An ardent believer in British imperialism, Rhodes and his British South Africa Company founded the southern African territory of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe and Zambia), which the company named after him in 1895. South Africa's Rhodes University is also named after him. Rhodes set up the provisions of the Rhodes Scholarship, which is funded by his estate, and put much effort towards his vision of a Cape to Cairo Railway through British territory.

The son of a vicar, Rhodes grew up in Bishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire, and was a sickly child. He was sent to South Africa by his family when he was 17 years old in the hope that the climate might improve his health. He entered the diamond trade at Kimberley in 1871, when he was 18, and over the next two decades gained near-complete domination of the world diamond market. His De Beers diamond company, formed in 1888, retains its prominence into the 21st century. Rhodes entered the Cape Parliament in 1880, and a decade later became Prime Minister. After overseeing the formation of Rhodesia during the early 1890s, he was forced to resign as Prime Minister in 1896 after the disastrous Jameson Raid, an unauthorised attack on Paul Kruger's South African Republic (or Transvaal). After Rhodes's death in 1902, at the age of 48, he was buried in the Matopos Hills in what is now Zimbabwe. At the time of his death he was already a very controversial figure.[2]

One of Rhodes's primary motivators in politics and business was his professed belief that the Anglo-Saxon race was, to quote his will, "the first race in the world".[3] Under the reasoning that "the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race",[3] he advocated vigorous settler colonialism and ultimately a reformation of the British Empire so that each component would be self-governing and represented in a single parliament in London. Ambitions such as these, juxtaposed with his policies regarding indigenous Africans in the Cape Colony—describing the country's black population as largely "in a state of barbarism",[4] he advocated their governance as a "subject race",[4] and was at the centre of moves to marginalise them politically—have led recent critics to characterise him as a white supremacist and "an architect of apartheid".[5]

Historian Richard A. McFarlane has called Rhodes "as integral a participant in southern African and British imperial history as George Washington or Abraham Lincoln are in their respective eras in United States history. Most histories of South Africa covering the last decades of the nineteenth century are contributions to the historiography of Cecil Rhodes." According to McFarlane, the aforementioned historiography "may be divided into two broad categories: chauvinistic approval or utter vilification".[6] Paul Maylam identifies three perspectives: works that attempt to either venerate or debunk Rhodes, and "the intermediate view, according to which Rhodes is not straightforwardly assessed as either hero or villain".[7]

Rhodes never married, pleading, "I have too much work on my hands" and saying that he would not be a dutiful husband.[45] Some writers and academics[46] have suggested that Rhodes may have been homosexual. The scholar Richard Brown observed: "On the issue of Rhodes' sexuality... there is, once again, simply not enough reliable evidence to reach firm, irrefutable conclusions. It is inferred, but not proven, that Rhodes was homosexual and it is assumed (but not proven) that his relationships with men were sometimes physical. Neville Pickering is described as Rhodes' lover in spite of the absence of decisive evidence."[47] Rhodes was close to Pickering; he returned from negotiations for Pickering's 25th birthday in 1882. On that occasion, Rhodes drew up a new will leaving his estate to Pickering.[45]

Two years later, Pickering suffered a riding accident. Rhodes nursed him faithfully for six weeks, refusing even to answer telegrams concerning his business interests. Pickering died in Rhodes's arms, and at his funeral, Rhodes was said to have wept with fervour.[46] Brown comments: "there is still the simpler but major problem of the extraordinarily thin evidence on which the conclusions about Rhodes are reached. Rhodes himself left few details... Indeed, Rhodes is a singularly difficult subject... since there exists little intimate material – no diaries and few personal letters."[47]

Pickering's successor was Henry Latham Currey, the son of an old friend, who had become Rhodes's private secretary in 1884.[48] When Currey became engaged in 1894, Rhodes was deeply mortified and their relationship ended.[49]

Rhodes also remained close to Leander Starr Jameson after the two had met in Kimberley, where they shared a bungalow. Jameson nursed Rhodes during his final illness, was a trustee of his estate and residuary beneficiary of his will, which allowed him to continue living in Rhodes' mansion after his death.[50]

In the last years of his life, Rhodes was stalked by Polish princess Catherine Radziwiłł, born Rzewuska, who had married into a noble Polish family called Radziwiłł. Radziwiłł falsely claimed that she was engaged to Rhodes, or that they were having an affair. She asked him to marry her, but Rhodes refused. In reaction, she accused him of loan fraud. He had to go to trial and testify against her accusation. She wrote a biography of Rhodes called Cecil Rhodes: Man and Empire Maker.[51] Her accusations were eventually proven to be false.[52]

Although Rhodes remained a leading figure in the politics of southern Africa, especially during the Second Boer War, he was dogged by ill health throughout his relatively short life.

He was sent to Natal aged 16 because it was believed the climate might help problems with his heart. On returning to England in 1872 his health again deteriorated with heart and lung problems, to the extent that his doctor, Sir Morell Mackenzie, believed he would only survive six months. He returned to Kimberley where his health improved. From age 40 his heart condition returned with increasing severity until his death from heart failure in 1902, aged 48, at his seaside cottage in Muizenberg.[1]

Westminster Abbey, London

Rhodes decreed in his will that he was to be buried in Matobo Hills. After his death in the Cape in 1902, his body was transported by train to Bulawayo. His burial was attended by Ndebele chiefs, who asked that the firing party should not discharge their rifles as this would disturb the spirits. Then, for the first time, they gave a white man the Matabele royal salute, Bayete. Rhodes is buried alongside Leander Starr Jameson and 34 British soldiers killed in the Shangani Patrol.[36] Despite occasional efforts to return his body to the United Kingdom, his grave remains there still, "part and parcel of the history of Zimbabwe" and attracts thousands of visitors each year.[37]

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  1. The Times & 27 March 1902.
  2. Famous people, Cape Town Diamond Museum
  3. Rhodes 1902, p. 58.
  4. Magubane 1996, p. 109.
  5. Castle 2016.
  6. McFarlane 2007.
  7. Maylam 2005, p. 4.
  8. Williams 1921.
  9. Thomas 1997.
  10. Flint 2009.
  11. Epstein 1982.
  12. Knowles 2005.
  13. Boschendal 2007.
  14. Picton-Seymour 1989.
  15. Oberholster 1987, p. 91.
  16. Apollo University Lodge.
  17. Rosenthal 1965.
  18. Rotberg 1988, pp. 76-.
  19. "Purchasing Power of Pound". Measuring Worth. 1971-02-15. Retrieved 2014-08-20.
  20. Martin 2009, p. 162.
  21. "Cecil Rhodes | prime minister of Cape Colony". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-07-20.
  22. Meredith, Martin (2008). Diamonds, Gold and War: The Making of South Africa. Simon & Schuster.
  23. History of South Africa Timeline(1485-1975) Archived 13 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. Dowden, Richard (17 April 1994). "Apartheid: made in Britain: Richard Dowden explains how Churchill, Rhodes and Smuts caused black South Africans to lose their rights". The Independent. London. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  25. Mnyanda, Siya (25 March 2015). "'Cecil Rhodes' colonial legacy must fall – not his statue'". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  26. Magubane 1996, p. 108.
  27. Jeeva (2011-10-01). "Cecil John Rhodes". www.sahistory.org.za. Retrieved 2017-07-20.
  28. Parkinson, Justin (2015-04-01). "Why is Cecil Rhodes such a controversial figure?". BBC News. Retrieved 2017-07-20.
  29. Burrows v. Rhodes and Jameson, [1899] 1 Q B 816 [1]
  30. Parsons 1993, p. 179–181.
  31. Blake, Robert (1977). A History of Rhodesia. London: Eyre Methuen. p. 55. ISBN 9780413283504.
  32. Panton 2015, p. 321.
  33. Farwell 2001, pp. 539–.
  34. Gray 1956.
  35. Gray 1954.
  36. Domville-Fife 1900, p. 89.
  37. Laing 2012.
  38. Rotberg 1988, p. 150.
  39. Attiah, Karen (25 November 2015). "Woodrow Wilson and Cecil Rhodes must fall". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  40. Plaut, Martin (16 April 2015). "From Cecil Rhodes to Mahatma Gandhi: why is South Africa tearing its statues down?". New Statesman. London. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  41. Raymond C. Mensing, "Cecil Rhodes's Ideas of Race and Empire." International Social Science Review 61#3 (1986): 99-106.
  42. Thomas Pinney (1995). The Letters of Rudyard Kipling: Volume 3: 1900-10. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 72. ISBN 9781349137398.
  43. Donal P. McCracken (2003). Forgotten Protest: Ireland and the Anglo-Boer War. Ulster Historical Foundation. pp. 22–24. ISBN 9781903688182.
  44. Rotberg 1988, pp. 131–133.
  45. Plomer 1984.
  46. Aldrich and Wotherspoon 2001, pp. 370-371.
  47. Brown 1990.
  48. Currey and Simons 1986, p. 26.
  49. Lockhart & Woodhouse 1963, p. 208.
  50. Massie 1991, pp. 218, 230.
  51. Radziwill 1918.
  52. Lockhart & Woodhouse 1963, p. 487.
  53. Pakenham, Thomas. The Boer War. pp. 321–323. ISBN 0-7474-0976-5.
  54. Phelan 1913.
  55. Roberts 1976.
  56. Thompson 2007, pp. 131–.
  57. Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Location 39431). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition
  58. Gore 2013.
  59. Blair 2004.
  60. Rotberg 1988, pp. 101-102.
  61. Ferguson 1999.
  62. Rhodes 1902.
  63. Rhodes 1902, p. 23-45.
  64. On Rhodes' leadership and peace goals for the Rhodes Scholarships, see Donald Markwell, "Instincts to Lead": On Leadership, Peace, and Education", Connor Court: Australia, 2013.
  65. Maylam 2005, p. 56.
  66. Masondo, Sipho (22 March 2015). "Rhodes: As divisive in death as in life". News24. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
  67. "Op-Ed: Rhodes statue removed from uct". The Rand Daily Mail. Johannesburg: Times Media Group. 9 April 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  68. Grootes, Stephen (6 April 2015). "Op-Ed: Say it aloud – Rhodes must fall". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
  69. Ispas, Mara. "Rhodes Uni Council approves plans for name change". SA Breaking News. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  70. Hind, Hassan (12 July 2015). "Oxford Students Want 'Racist' Statue Removed". Sky News. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
  71. "UCT condemns RMF's vandalism and violence". 12 July 2015.
  72. Twain 1898.
  73. Rhodes of Africa (1936).
  74. "Rhodes" on IMDB
  75. Godwin 1998.
  76. Dalham.