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Andy Warhol Factory, 33 Union Square E, New York, NY 10003, Stati Uniti
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Andy Warhol House, 57 E 66th St, New York, NY 10065, Stati Uniti
Andy Warhol House, 13 E 87th St, New York, NY 10128, Stati Uniti
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Andy Warhol 
Warhola'''; August 6, 1928 – February 22, 1987) was an American
artist, director and producer who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. His works explore
the relationship between artistic expression, celebrity culture, and
advertising that flourished by the 1960s, and span a variety of
media, including painting, silkscreening, photography, film, and
sculpture. Some of his best known works include the silkscreen paintings
''Campbell's Soup Cans'' (1962) and ''Marilyn Diptych'' (1962),
the experimental film ''Chelsea Girls'' (1966), and the multimedia events known as the ''Exploding Plastic Inevitable''
Born and raised in Pittsburgh, Warhol initially pursued a successful career as a commercial illustrator. After exhibiting his work in several galleries in the late 1950s, he began to receive recognition as an influential and controversial artist. His New York studio, The Factory, became a well-known gathering place that brought together distinguished intellectuals, drag queens, playwrights, Bohemian street people, Hollywood celebrities, and wealthy patrons. He promoted a collection of personalities known as Warhol superstars, and is credited with coining the widely used expression "15 minutes of fame." In the late 1960s, he managed and produced the experimental rock band The Velvet Underground and founded ''Interview'' magazine. He authored numerous books, including ''The Philosophy of Andy Warhol'' and ''Popism: The Warhol Sixties''. He lived openly as a gay man before the gay liberation movement. After gallbladder surgery, Warhol died in February 1987 at the age of 58.
Warhol has been the subject of numerous retrospective exhibitions, books, and feature and documentary films. The Andy Warhol Museum in his native city of Pittsburgh, which holds an extensive permanent collection of art and archives, is the largest museum in the United States dedicated to a single artist. Many of his creations are very collectible and highly valuable. The highest price ever paid for a Warhol painting is US$105 million for a 1963 canvas titled ''Silver Car Crash (Double Disaster)''; his works include some of the most expensive paintings ever sold. A 2009 article in ''The Economist'' described Warhol as the "bellwether of the art market".
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Warhol was gay. Interviewed in 1980, he
indicated that he was still a virgin—biographer Bob Colacello who
was present at the interview felt it was probably true and that what
little sex he had was probably "a mixture of voyeurism and masturbation—to use [Andy's] word ''abstract''". Warhol's assertion of virginity would
seem to be contradicted by his hospital treatment in 1960 for condylomata, a sexually transmitted disease. It has also been contradicted by his
lovers, including Warhol muse BillyBoy who has said they
had sex to orgasm: "When he wasn't being Andy Warhol and when you were
just alone with him he was an incredibly generous and very kind person.
What seduced me was the Andy Warhol who I saw alone. In fact when I was
with him in public he kind of got on my nerves….I'd say: 'You're just
obnoxious, I can't bear you." Asked if Warhol was only a voyeur, Billy Name also
denied it, saying: "He was the essence of sexuality. It permeated
everything. Andy exuded it, along with his great artistic creativity….It
brought a joy to the whole art world in New York." "But
his personality was so vulnerable that it became a defense to put up the
blank front." Warhol's
lovers included John Giorno, Billy Name, Charles Lisanby, and Jon Gould. His boyfriend of
12 years was Jed Johnson, whom he met in
1968, and who later achieved fame as an interior designer.
The fact that Warhol's homosexuality influenced his work and shaped his relationship to the art world is a major subject of scholarship on the artist and is an issue that Warhol himself addressed in interviews, in conversation with his contemporaries, and in his publications (''e.g.'', ''Popism: The Warhol 1960s''). Throughout his career, Warhol produced erotic photography and drawings of male nudes. Many of his most famous works (portraits of Liza Minnelli, Judy Garland, and Elizabeth Taylor, and films such as ''Blow Job'', ''My Hustler'' and ''Lonesome Cowboys'') draw from gay underground culture or openly explore the complexity of sexuality and desire. As has been addressed by a range of scholars, many of his films premiered in gay porn theaters.
The first works that Warhol submitted to a fine art gallery, homoerotic drawings of male nudes, were rejected for being too openly gay. In ''Popism'', furthermore, the artist recalls a conversation with the film maker Emile de Antonio about the difficulty Warhol had being accepted socially by the then-more-famous (but closeted) gay artists Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg. De Antonio explained that Warhol was "too swish and that upsets them." In response to this, Warhol writes, "There was nothing I could say to that. It was all too true. So I decided I just wasn't going to care, because those were all the things that I didn't want to change anyway, that I didn't think I 'should' want to change ... Other people could change their attitudes but not me". In exploring Warhol's biography, many turn to this period—the late 1950s and early 1960s—as a key moment in the development of his persona. Some have suggested that his frequent refusal to comment on his work, to speak about himself (confining himself in interviews to responses like "Um, no" and "Um, yes", and often allowing others to speak for him)—and even the evolution of his pop style—can be traced to the years when Warhol was first dismissed by the inner circles of the New York art world.
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