BURIED TOGETHER

Queer Places:
Miss Porter's School, 60 Main St, Farmington, CT 06032, Stati Uniti
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, Stati Uniti
Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, Stati Uniti
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Stati Uniti
Hull House, 800 S Halsted St, Chicago, IL 60607, Stati Uniti
Cove Cemetery, Old Lyme, Connecticut 06371, Stati Uniti

Image result for Alice HamiltonAlice Hamilton (February 27, 1869 – September 22, 1970) was an American physician, research scientist, and author who is best known as a leading expert in the field of occupational health and a pioneer in the field of industrial toxicology. She was also the first woman appointed to the faculty of Harvard University. Her scientific research focused on the study of occupational illnesses and the dangerous effects of industrial metals and chemical compounds. In addition to her scientific work, Hamilton was a social-welfare reformer, humanitarian, peace activist, and a resident-volunteer at Hull House in Chicago. She was the recipient of numerous honors and awards, most notably the Lasker Award for her public-service contributions.

Alice was the second oldest of five siblings that included three sisters (Edith, Margaret, and Norah) and a brother (Arthur "Quint"), all of whom were accomplished in their respective fields. The girls remained especially close throughout their childhood and into their professional careers.[5] Edith (1867–1963), an educator and headmistress at Bryn Mawr School in Baltimore, Maryland, became a classicist and renowned author for her essays and best-selling books on ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Margaret (1871–1969), like her older sister Edith, became an educator and headmistress at Bryn Mawr School. Norah (1873–1945) was an artist. Arthur (1886–1967), the youngest Hamilton sibling, became a writer, professor of Spanish, and assistant dean for foreign students at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Arthur was the only sibling to marry; he and his wife, Mary (Neal) Hamilton, had no children.[12]


Hull House

In 1897 Hamilton accepted an offer to become a professor of pathology at the Woman's Medical School of Northwestern University. Soon after her move to Chicago, Illinois, she fulfilled a longtime ambition to become a member and resident of Hull House, the settlement house founded by social reformer Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr.[3][5][22] While Hamilton taught and did research at the medical school during the day, she maintained an active life at Hull House, her full-time residence from 1897 to 1919.[23] Hamilton became Jane Addams' personal physician and volunteered her time at Hull House to teach English and art. She also directed the men's fencing and athletic clubs, operated a well-baby clinic, and visited the sick in their homes.[24][25] Although she had moved away from Chicago in 1919 when she accepted a position as an assistant professor at Harvard Medical School, Hamilton returned to Hull House and stayed for several months each spring until Addams's death in 1935.[23]

After her retirement from Harvard in 1935, Hamilton became a medical consultant to the U.S. Division of Labor Standards.[51] Her last field survey, which was made in 1937–38, investigated the viscose rayon industry. In addition, Hamilton served as president of the National Consumers League from 1944 to 1949.[25][45]

Hamilton spent her retirement years in Hadlyme, Connecticut, at the home she had purchased in 1916 with her sister, Margaret. Hamilton remained an active writer in retirement. Her autobiography, Exploring the Dangerous Trades, was published in 1943.[52] Hamilton and coauthor Harriet Hardy also revised Industrial Toxicology (1949), the textbook that Hamilton had initially written in 1934. Hamilton also enjoyed leisure activities such as reading, sketching, and writing, as well as spending time among her family and friends.[45][53]

Clara Landsberg was a close college and longtime family friend, studied in Europe with Margaret Hamilton for a summer in 1899. The daughter of a Reform rabbi from Rochester, New York, and a graduate of Bryn Mawr College, Landsberg became a resident at Hull House, where she was in charge of its evening education programs and shared a room with Alice. Lands berg eventually left Hull House to teach Latin at Bryn Mawr School in Baltimore, Maryland, where Edith was headmistress. Margaret also became a teacher at Bryn Mawr School and took over as headmistress before retiring in 1935. Alice, who considered Landsberg part of the Hamilton family, one remarked, "I could not think of a life in which Clara did not have a great part, she has become part of my life almost as if she were one of us."

Hamilton died of a stroke at her home in Hadlyme, Connecticut, on September 22, 1970, at the age of 101.[5][54] She is buried at Cove Cemetery in Hadlyme with her sister and Claura Landsberg.[55][56]

Hamilton was a tireless researcher and crusader against the use of toxic substances in the workplace.[57] Within three months of her death in 1970, the U.S. Congress passed the Occupational Safety and Health Act to improve workplace safety in the United States.[58]


  1. Barbara Sicherman (1984). Alice Hamilton, A Life in Letters. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-674-01553-3.
  2. J. McKeen Cattell, ed. (1906). American Men of Science: A Biographical Dictionary.. New York: The Science Press. p. 134.
  3. "Dr. Alice Hamilton"/a>. Changing the face of medicine. National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015..
  4. The family compound included three homes: her grandparents' homestead, called Old House; Red House, the home of her uncle, Andrew Holman Hamilton, and his family; and White House, where Alice and her family lived. See Catherine E. Forrest Weber, (Fall 1995). "Alice Hamilton, M.D.: Crusader Against Death on the Job". Traces of Indiana and Midwestern History. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society. 7 (4): 31.
  5. "Alice Hamilton and the Development of Occupational Medicine National Historic Chemical Landmark"/a>. ACS Chemistry for Life. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2015..
  6. Sicherman, i>Alice Hamilton, A Life in Letters,, pp. 13–15.
  7. Sicherman, i>Alice Hamilton, A Life in Letters,, pp. 14, 25.
  8. Weber, p. 31.
  9. Sicherman, i>Alice Hamilton, A Life in Letters,, pp. 15, 17.
  10. Sicherman, i>Alice Hamilton, A Life in Letters,, p. 18.
  11. Barbara Sicherman and Carol Hurd Green (1980). Notable American Women: The Modern Period, A Biographical Dictionary. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University. p. 303. ISBN 9780674627321..
  12. Sicherman, i>Alice Hamilton, A Life in Letters,, pp. 11–13.
  13. Barbara Sicherman, "Sense and Sensibility: A Case Study of Women's Victorian America" in Cathy N. Davidson, ed. (1989). Reading in America: Literature and Social History.. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 213.
  14. Weber, p. 32.
  15. Stephen J. Jay, "Alice Hamilton" in Linda C. Gugin and James E. St. Clair, eds. (2015). i>Indiana's 200: The People Who Shaped the Hoosier State. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-87195-387-2..
  16. Laura Lynn Windsor (2002). i>Women in Medicine: An Encyclopedia.. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 89–91.
  17. Weber, p. 33.
  18. In 1894 Edith Hamilton, a fellow in Latin at Bryn Mawr College, was awarded the Mary E. Garrett European Fellowship that provided the funds to enable the two sisters to pursue further studies abroad for an academic year. See Sicherman, Alice Hamilton, A Life in Letters,, pp. 89–90.
  19. Weber, p. 43.
  20. "Alice Hamilton"/a>. Chemical Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on 19 November 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2015..
  21. Hamilton described their experiences in Germany in her autobiography. See Alice Hamilton (1985). Exploring the Dangerous Trades: The Autobiography of Alice Hamilton, M.D. Boston: Northeastern University Press. pp. 44–51. ISBN 0-930350-81-2. See also: Sandra L. Singer (2003). Adventures Abroad: North American Women at German-Speaking Universities, 1868–1915. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 74–75. ISBN 9780313096860..
  22. Sicherman, i>Alice Hamilton: A Life in Letters,, p. 111.
  23. "Alice Hamilton and the Development of Occupational Medicine"/a>. National Historic Chemical Landmarks. American Chemical Society. Archived from the original on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2017..
  24. Weber, p. 34.
  25. "Alice Hamilton"/a>. National Women’s History Museum. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2017..
  26. Alice Hamilton (1943). i>Exploring the Dangerous Trades: The Autobiography of Alice Hamilton. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company. p. 114. ISBN 0-930350-81-2..
  27. Sicherman and Green, p. 304.
  28. "Alice Hamilton Collection"/a>. Richard J. Daley Library Special Collections and University Archives, University of Illinois at Chicago. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2015..
  29. "Alice Hamilton, M.D."/a> MMWR Weekly. 48 (22): 462. 11 June 1999. Archived from the original on 16 December 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2015..
  30. "A Voice in the Wilderness: Alice Hamilton and the Illinois Survey | NIOSH Science Blog | Blogs | CDC"/a>. blogs.cdc.gov. Archived from the original on 13 November 2016. Retrieved 12 November 2016..
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  32. "Why lead used to be added to gasoline"/a>. Archived from the original on 2017-10-03. Retrieved 2017-12-05..
  33. Weber, p. 35.
  34. "Alice Hamilton a pioneer in occupational health"/a>. Tacomed.com. Archived from the original on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2017..
  35. Weber, p. 37.
  36. Kathryn Kish Sklar and Kari Amidon. "How Did Women Activists Promote Peace in Their 1915 Tour of Warring European Capitals?". Women and Social Movements in the United States. Archived from the original on 20 September 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2015..
  37. Jane Addams, Emily Balch, and Alice Hamilton (1915). Women at The Hague : The International Congress of Women and Its Results / by Three Delegates to the Congress from the United States, Jane Addams, Emily G. Balch, Alice Hamilton. New York: Macmillan. Archived from the original on 2016-03-08.
  38. "1915: International Congress of Women opens at The Hague"/a>. This Day in History. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2015..
  39. "Jane Addams, Alice Hamilton, and Aletta Jacobs in Berlin, during World War I"/a>. Critical Past. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2015..
  40. Kathryn Kish Sklar, Anja Schüler, and Susan Strasser (1998). Social Justice Feminists in the United States and Germany: A Dialogue in Documents, 1885–1933. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. pp. 53–55. ISBN 9780801484698. Archived from the original on 2016-05-29.
  41. Sklar, Schüler, and Strasser, pp. 53–55.
  42. Elizabeth Fee and Theodore M. Brown (November 2001). "Alice Hamilton: Settlement Physician, Occupational Health Pioneer". American Journal of Public Health. 91 (11): 1767. doi:10.2105/AJPH.91.11.1767. Retrieved 16 October 2015..
  43. Jay, p. 149.
  44. "A National Chemical Landmark: Alice Hamilton and the Development of Occupational Medicine, September 21, 2002"/a> (pdf). American Chemical Society. 2002. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 October 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2017..
  45. Sicherman and Green, p. 305.
  46. Alice Hamilton (June 15, 1925). "What Price Safety, Tetraethyl Lead Reveals a Flaw in Our Defenses". i>The Survey Mid-Monthly. 54:: 333–34.
  47. Peter Dauvergne (2010). The shadows of consumption : consequences for the global environment (First MIT Press paperback ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-0262514927. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17.
  48. Kathryn Hilgenkamp (2011). Environmental Health. Jones and Bartlett Learning. p. 327. ISBN 978-0763771089. Archived from the original on 30 April 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2015..
  49. Sicherman, Alice Hamilton, A Life in Letters,, p. 437.
  50. Marvin Perry (2003). i>Sources of the Western Tradition. II (5th ed.). Belmont, California: Wadsworth.
  51. William T. Moye (June 1986). "BLS and Alice Hamilton: Pioneers in Industrial Health" (PDF). Monthly Labor Review. 109 (6). Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 December 2016. Retrieved 12 November 2016..
  52. "Alice Hamilton"/a>. Connecticut Women's Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on 11 September 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015..
  53. Weber, pp. 38–39.
  54. Sicherman and Green, p. 306.
  55. Alice Hamilton is buried in the same cemetery where the remains of her mother (Gertrude) and sisters (Norah, Alice, and Margaret) are interred, as well as those of Edith's life partner, Doris Fielding Reid, and Margaret's life partner, Clara Landsberg. See Scott Wilson. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons (3d Kindle ed.). McFarland and Company, Inc. p. 2 (Kindle Location 19508).
  56. Sicherman, Alice Hamilton, A Life in Letters, p. 197.)
  57. Weber, p. 28.
  58. Weber, p. 39.
  59. "Grimes, Roosevelt, and Hamilton, standing. Roosevelt is presenting Hamilton with an award"/a>. Harvard University Library. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
  60. "Albert Lasker Public Service Award"/a>. Lasker Foundation. Archived from the original on 9 September 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2015..
  61. "Medicine: Woman of the Year"/a>. Time. 19 November 1956. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016.
  62. "Alice Hamilton"/a>. Nationanl Women's Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015..
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  64. "Up 55-cent Hamilton"/a>. Arago: People, Postage and the Post. Archived from the original on 3 February 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2015..
  65. Nancy Unger (2012). i>Beyond Nature's Housekeepers: American Women in Environmental History.. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 87–88.
  66. "Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, UCSF"/a>. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
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